Conceptual model of stress induced BVOC emissions (Tiwari et al., 2016)
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are emitted from the biosphere in dependence on temperature, light, plant development stage, weather history, CO2 and a variety of stresses. The response is highly specific for species as well as emitted compounds. The most common of these compounds are isoprene (C5H8) and multiples of this molecule (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, …). Also, oxygenated compounds such as alcohols or aldehydes are frequently observed.
We apply and develop models that describe the emission of BVOCs in dependence on vegetation properties, weather and stress conditions. The most common is the so-called Guenther algorithm and its more recent form, the model of emissions of gases and aerosols from nature (MEGAN). Other approaches are the very detailed SIM-BIM model and a model that links emissions to photosynthesis (suggested by Niinemets et al.). The SIM-BIM model is a combination of the daily-step enzyme activity model SIM (Lehning et al. 2001) and the biochemical process model of isoprenoid emission BIM (Zimmer et al. 2000, Grote et al. 2006). The combined model has been successfully applied to simulate isoprene emission from various tree species (e.g. Grote et al. 2006).
We have further developed this latter model into the JJV model (see Grote et al. 2014) in order to consider the often surprisingly negative response to CO2 increase and working on making this model sensitive to air pollution stress.
All of these models are linked as modules into the LandscapeDNDC model framework and can be selected together with appropriate photosynthesis and plant development routines. The linkages does not only allow the link emissions to other physiological processes but also to scale up, enabling the provision of regional emission inventories.
Tiwari S, Grote R, Churkina G, Butler T (2016) Ozone damage, detoxification and the role of isoprenoids - new impetus for integrated models. Functional Plant Biology 43: 324-326.
Ghirardo A, Xie J, Zheng X, Wang Y, Grote R, Block K, Wildt J, Mentel T, Kiendler-Scharr A, Hallquist M, Butterbach-Bahl K, Schnitzler JP (2016) Urban stress-induced biogenic VOC emissions and SOA-forming potentials in Beijing. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16:2901-2920.
Grote R, Morfopoulos C, Niinemets Ü, Sun Z, Keenan TF, Pacifico F, Butler T (2014) A fully integrated isoprenoid emissions model coupling emissions to photosynthetic characteristics. Plant, Cell & Environment 37: 1965-1980.
Grote R, Monson R, Niinemets Ü (2013) Leaf-level models of constitutive and stress-driven volatile organic compound emissions. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, Controls and Models of Tree Volatile Organic Compound Emission, vol 5. Springer Netherlands, pp 315-355.
Monson RK, Grote R, Niinemets Ü, Schnitzler J-P (2012) Modeling the isoprene emission rate from leaves. New Phytologist 195: 541-559.
Grote R, Mayrhofer S, Fischbach RJ, Steinbrecher R, Staudt M, Schnitzler J-P. 2006. Process-based modelling of isoprenoid emissions from evergreen leaves of Quercus ilex (L.). Atmospheric Environment 40: 152-165
Lehning A, Zimmer W, Zimmer I, Schnitzler J-P. 2001. Modeling of annual variations of oak (Quercus robur L.) isoprene synthase activity to predict isoprene emission rates. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106: 3157-3166.
Zimmer W, Brüggemann N, Emeis S, Giersch C, Lehning A, Steinbrecher R, Schnitzler J-P. 2000. Process-based modelling of isoprene emission by oak leaves. Plant, Cell & Environment, 23: 585-595.
Contact: Rüdiger Grote