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Prof. Dr. Stefan Emeis


BMWi Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie





X-Wakes - Interaction of wakes of large offshore wind parks and wind park clusters with the marine atmospheric boundary layer

X-Wakes C pursues the investigation of the influences of coastlines on the impinging flow on offshore wind parks in the North Sea and their wakes by meso-scale and LES models. This comprises the upgrade of meso-scale models to deal properly with coastal effects, the introduction of coastal impacts in industry models, and the validation of model simulations with measured data. Special focus will be on situations when low-level jets form in offshore flows.

The project work is designed to provide a better understanding of the impact of coastal effects on the energy yield from offshore wind parks and wind-park clusters and to enhance the simulation of these impacts in industry models. Additionally, the meso-scale model simulations will show the impact of wind parks and wind-park clusters on the marine atmospheric boundary layer given the deployment scenarios until the year 2030. Finally, suggestions will be elaborated for a future offshore wind measurement network.

The work in this project is part of a larger effort conducted in a group of joined projects funded by the German Ministry of Economy and Energy (grant number 03EE3008)


- Fraunhofer-Institut für Windenergiesysteme (IWES) - Standort Oldenburg

-Technische Universität Carolo-Wilhelmina zu Braunschweig - Fakultät 4 - Maschinenbau - Institut für Flugführung, Braunschweig

- Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen

- Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Institut für Physik

- Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Tübingen

- Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material- und Küstenforschung GmbH, Geesthacht

- UL International GmbH, Wilhelmshaven

work plan

In a first step, the numerical simulation of offshore flows in meso-scale models will be assessed and enhanced. This requires a special focus on the correct simulation of the approaching flow over land.

The upgraded model will be used to analyse the coastline-induced modifications of the thermal stratification and the vertical wind profile in the near-coastal marine atmospheric boundary layer.

The range of the coastal influence on the marine boundary layer will be investigated and the conditions for the development of low-level jets and their frequency will be assessed.

The simulations will be used to estimate how the coastal influence on the vertical wind and temperature profiles will modify the energy yield from the offshore wind parks and the formation of wakes behind these wind parks and wind-park clusters.

Further work Is designed to assist the provision of project results concerning the wind and turbulence conditions in the marine boundary layer for other scientific and technical investigations. This includes the enhancement of industry models in this respect.