Quantification of mid and long term impacts of different forest conversion practices on biosphere-atmosphere exchange
Long Term Monitoring Station 'Höglwald', Bavaria, Germany
The Höglwald is a Norway spruce-dominated forest of about 370 ha surrounded by farmland in the hilly landscape of Southern Bavaria, approx. 70 km north of the Alps and 40 km west of Munich at 11° 5' E and 48°18' N. The Höglwald site (560 m asl) is operated by IMK-IFU permanently since 1993. The site is characterized by chronically high loads of atmospheric nitrogen deposition (~30 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in wet deposition). The site is equipped with 3 fully automated, remotely controlled measuring and data acquisition systems in standard containers for continuous quantification of net exchange of trace gases (CO2, N2O, CH4, NOX) at the soil-atmosphere interface in high temporal resolution using static and dynamic chamber techniques. In addition, the site is equipped with towers for quantification of net ecosystem exchange of CO2, H2O and sensible heat. The measurements are complemented by sensors for precipitation, soil temperature, soil moisture, stem temperature, soil heat flux, radiation as well as the vertical profiles of temperature, wind speed and wind direction.
During the past 3 decades, scientific activity at the Höglwald forest site focused on different drivers affecting forest ecosystem functions e.g. acidic rain, tree species composition and forest management practices. Overall, the C and N trace gas exchange dataset of the Höglwald is worldwide the most comprehensive, complete and long-lasting dataset on trace gas exchange and environmental controls of a forest ecosystem.